Sunday, May 30, 2010


                           ©2010 Photography by Elyse Gardner
Commemorative Statue at Sacramento, CA for the Pony Express
     Warm greetings this momentous holiday of Memorial for the fallen of our country. This holiday commemorates those who've given the ultimate gift to obtain the freedom we Americans live and breathe and assume every day of our busy lives.  I remember as well all the families and friends and animals who have grieved these losses.
     Being a horse advocate, I include in this the profound yet commonly overlooked contribution of the horses, and most noteably the wild horses, who were conscripted into service in our wars here and abroad.  It wasn't uncommon for a mounted soldier to go through as many as nine horses in his career. 
     In thinking of the myriad thousands of horses who've served to obtain this way of life, most notably the war horses and the Pony Express horses stand out today.  A great many were conscripted wild horses as well as domestic.  Horribly, we brought our beautifully trained, trusting horses to fight our wars in World War I in Europe and left them there to be slaughtered.  
     I hope you will join me in taking a few moments to go to the link below to honor the horses by learning of their immense service to us in this profound, all-out way.  On behalf of our species, we owe them so very much.  Please learn with me of their tremendous contribution.  The only thing more sad than losing one's life as a hero is for no one on earth to notice.  
     Therefore, join me -- please -- in reading this informative article at the provided link below.  IN MEMORIAM TO OUR HORSES, thank you.  Please click on the link below (or copy and paste the link below into your address bar).  What a convenient way to explore history.

Look over our struggle for freedom,
Trace our present-day strength to its source;
You'll find that man's pathway to glory,
is strewn with the bones of a horse.         -- Anonymous

NOTE: To enlarge photos, simply click once on them.  Press your"back" arrow or "back" command to restore to original size.  Enjoy! 
                      ©Photo by Elyse Gardner
Yearling and two-year-old fillies at Broken Arrow holding in Fallon, Nevada, from Calico roundup
               Right now I will focus on the delightfulness of these horses.  For now I am anticipating with great satisfaction sharing with you the absolute delight of these highly interactive, curious and gentle girls.  The boys are sweet and eager, too, but for now, meet the girls of Fallon.  Enjoy the video at the end of this post... can't wait to share that with you.
                       ©Photo by Elyse Gardner
                      ©Photo by Elyse Gardner
The fillies below are at Palomino Valley holding facility and are not from the Calico roundup.  There are thousands of wonderful wild horses in holding facilities who were driven off their homes all over the west. 
                      ©Photo by Marilyn Wargo
Fillies at Palomino Valley Center holding facility outside Reno, Nevada
                   ©Photo by Marilyn Wargo
Brave curious filly exchanging breath with me
                     ©Photo by Marilyn Wargo

Having exchanged breath, she's demonstrating the flehmen response, taking, reading, and storing my scent
                      ©Photo by Elyse Gardner
                     ©Photo by Elyse Gardner
I will be adding more soon about the judge's ruling on the IDA v. Salazar lawsuit as well as the well-known stallions and our other Calico roundup horses now at Palomino Valley holding.  
An excellent synopsis on the lawsuit by attorney and advocate Laura Allen may be found at 
These blogs are difficult because of the myriad of issues I want to share. What to address...   
For now, I am relieved that some alarming issues we observed and addressed regarding the housing of the stallions at Palomino Valley holding have been responded to by the BLM, and some potential problems averted. It was very frustrating initially to be somewhat disrespectfully dismissed, but we and the problems were ultimately taken seriously.  It is progress. Keep a cool head, be persistent, show up smooth and steady for the horses. The BLM staff tend to be defensive now, and who can blame them.  We all need to unclench our fists and breathe.   For details and a blow-by-blow, you can visit Laura Leigh's blog at
                        ©Photo by Elyse Gardner

Stallions at Palomino Valley Holding
I hope for more of this type of cooperative care with BLM for these animals.  I am so glad public observers/we were there, and I am glad BLM responded.  Palomino is a public facility open six days a week, so we have been able to visit and monitor the Calico horses now in pens there. 
Visit your local holding facilities; you will help the horses much more than you realize. Ask questions.  Be a polite presence.
Important:  I have been told by BLM officials that they are receiving threats of violence.  I hope anyone reading this blog will limit their threats to, "I'm going to write my Congressman," and, "I am blogging this all over the world." And those are promises, not threats.  It is my call and plea that people not threaten or commit violence against the BLM or anyone else.  
The voice and pen are mightier than the sword.  I suspect the people making the threats do not read this blog.  If you do, we do not help the horses by violence or by threatening violence.  It is violence we are seeking to end by stopping the helicopter roundups and finding workable protection and management on the range for the wild horses and burros. Herdwatch is well under way and will provide realistic alternative protection and management strategies to BLM for keeping our wild horses wild and free-roaming if the BLM has the will to do it.
And now for some real fun.  Enjoy, and happy, safe, Memorial Day commemoration.  
(I'm still wresting with these videos; please DOUBLE CLICK INSIDE THE VIDEO so it will play properly. Thank you.)

I remain,
for the wild horses, captive and free, and their humble burro friends,

Sunday, May 23, 2010

TRIBUTE TO MOUSE, the Mouse Who Roared

It is my difficult task to announce the death of Mouse, the little grulla yearling colt who captivated me from the day I saw him in the temporary holding pens at the Soldier Meadows trapsite on January 6, 2010.
I must go to Fallon right now to see those he left behind.  The slideshow and video will tell you all I know at present; I hope to find out more today.  I will add to this post later.
I remain stronger than ever,
For the wild horses, captive and free, and their humble burro friends,
Elyse GardnerOn Another Difficult Issue:
I've been out of town documenting range conditions at future BLM-planned roundups, and I was reviewing email before leaving again. Things that need to be said:

About little Sorro:  
The suffering of this infant has generated a tidal wave of response and comments, and I just want to say that we do not know why this mare's milk was drying up.  Clearly this was evident -- and it was evident the foal was not getting nutritional needs met -- for days before he reached his horrid end.   It seems convenient for BLM and/or Broken Arrow staff to suddenly be keeping accurate birth records of foals now that this one's care is under scrutiny.   As far as his being only three days old, he seemed at least a week old, even to Dean Bolstad.  
BLM has stated on the record that ordinarily they do not keep records of the foals until they are tagged and branded at between four and six months old, nor do they necessarily record which mares have birthed.  Foals are being born and dying and not being internally logged put on the "daily updates" which we're told will now be ending and becoming "weekly" updates.  We public observers happened to catch Sorro's experience.  We have no idea what else has gone on at Broken Arrow concerning the lives of the foals, all the more indication that the public should have access to holding facilities, and the BLM should know and expect the public to be present.

I have learned that just the day before my video and this foal's death, Dr. Sanford did see this mare and foal and chose to let them remain together in that big pen to see if things would improve.  So questions then arise: 

1) Why was not this pair placed immediately in a a hospital pen together where they could have more easily received observation and/or treatment?  
2) Was the foal examined to see if he had any problems nursing, such as teeth, gum, jaw, or other issues that would inhibit his ability to nurse? 
3) If no evident anomalies existed with the foal, why was not the mare given a milk-producing stimulant? 
4) Why was not this failing little boy given to Shirley if his plight were known?    
5) Was an autopsy done? If not, why not?
6) Was the problem to do with the foal, or the mare? e.g., was anything noted about the mare's previous PZP treatment toward building database to study the longterm effects of PZP on milk production, on foals, etc.?

I am very happy to see the care given to these animals.  The work and relationships formed in order to accomplish this is a good thing.  BLM's giving of these foals to this organization benefits the foals, and I am pleased to see it.  These facts do not negate the true chronology of events, however, and I, too, feel compelled to talk about what's really going on.  

The scenario given to Maureen Harmonay of The Examiner about at least one of the orphans brought to Shirley Allen isn't quite accurate.  Maureen was given the impression that BLM officials noticed the foals were having problems, and BLM got right on it and called Shirley right away and/or that some of the mares' milk was dry.  Here is the chronology of what happened.  Judge for yourself.

On Sunday, May 2, I documented by video a little lost baby (now in Shirley Allen's care) in one of the mare/foal pens who could not find his mother.  I have 12 minutes of video of this pathetic, thin little guy looking  and calling for mom. I called Dean Bolstad over and he stood and watched with me as this little guy haplessly followed this mare/foal and then that one, and then was rebuffed by a mare with her foal when he approached with his little submissive lip clacking and tried to nurse her.  She put her ears back and gestured with her head, "Be gone."  Three times he tried to urinate and nothing came out.  

Dean reassured me that the foal's mother must be in there somewhere, that he looked fine because he was moving around fine.  I told him I was very disturbed because all I had was his placating comment, but the truth of the matter is the public has no way to follow up since they keep no records at all on foals until they are tagged and branded at about four to five months old.  I was very concerned about this little boy, and so were the other public observers present that day.  To stay with the tour I was required to move from this pen with no resolution, leaving this little orphan to wander pathetically alone, calling out hopefully every few minutes. Deep sigh.

The following tour -- Saturday, May 8 -- I was relieved and moved to find this little boy had been adopted by Cream Pie, who now nursed two foals,  a scene which I videotaped and photographed as documented in my Tribute to Mustang Mothers slideshow.  He was obviously content and secure at having found a home with this mothering mare.  I called Dean over to share the good news.  Dean was happy to see this, and it was evident that he was discovering this little adoptive family for the first time right along with us. 

During the Sunday, May 16, tour it was announced that three foals had been taken Shirley Allen's, at least a couple of whom had been adopted by a generous mare, and one mare apparently had a total of three foals.   

This little one left either the 13th or 14, a full 11 or 12 days following his known orphan status.   Had any followup been done for him before Cream Pie stepped in to save him?  Until I was seen documenting him and urging follow up on him, it was Cream Pie who saved this little one, not BLM officials, who now ride on Cream Pie's coat-tail.   

 Comments I hear about how foals die and have various issues on the range:
 We all understand that hard things happen to wildlife on the range, but this flawed logic seems a poor attempted justification for BLM's and the vet's failure to act on behalf of this helpless mare and foal. 

To be clear:  BLM took that scenario -- what "happens in the wild" -- out of the equation when they rounded up these horses and utterly deprived them of the self-directed life they once brilliantly lived.   It seems very forked-tongue-ish for people  to keep quoting "what happens in the wild." They cannot have it both ways.  Let these intelligent, self-sufficient horses indeed be free on the range and let the wild things happen.  But since they are not permitted to remain wild and free-roaming, BLM has made itself responsible for these animals, and they have a legal and moral duty and obligation to care for them and certainly to not allow them to languish and starve.  

Thank you for your loving work, Shirley.  None of my comments and criticism pertain to you or your kind work.  

For Mouse and his kind,

I remain
For the wild horses and their humble burro friends,
Elyse Gardner

Tuesday, May 18, 2010

FALLON UPDATES - The Life of Sorro

 It was the Sunday tour on May 16, 2010, and 300 new babies were evident. 

     Spring at Broken Arrow holding facility in Fallon, Nevada, where nearly all the wild horses of the Calico Mountain complex are living in pens, is evident as these beautiful horses deliver their babies and mother them so protectively in their unnaturally crowded environments. 
   There are "Kodak moments" everywhere you look.  It is hard to take a bad photograph with all these picturesque babies and stunning horses.  While the Broken Arrow owners have tried to meet challenges and make adjustments, and BLM has criticized me for not giving them enough credit, I speak for and from the horses' perspective.  
                           ©Photography by Elyse Gardner
Infant plays with mom's tag string. 
                          ©Photography by Craig Downer
Sorro's mother may be dry, but she is diligent and 
very concerned.  She paced up and down the fence
 line protectively following her emaciated, dehydrated baby.
                      ©Photography by Craig Downer

Sorro's mom watching anxiously as her baby paces up and down the fenceline.
                           ©Photography by Craig Downer
(Sorro's story is told below.)
I am constantly assured by BLM of their, and Broken Arrow's, efforts to care for these horses, and I applaud every act on behalf of these animals who've asked for nothing more than to be left free.  We can see the horses are amply fed, yet I have repeatedly seen, and other public observers/horsepeople also report, moldy hay.  This last Sunday a horse was seen tossing a piece of hay he had picked up to eat.  We went to see it because it was such a pronounced, unusual gesture by the horses. What a commentary.  It was moldy. 
                      ©Photograph by Elyse Gardner
Now, I would venture to say that the predominant portion of the hay is good, but there should be a zero tolerance for moldy hay as feed for Mustangs with highly sensitive digestive systems which are completely adapted to the grasses and plants of the Nevada Mountains.  
   Most of the horses are adjusting, but many are having or developing injuries because of the nature of this confinement, i.e., kicks, bites, abscesses from feeders, etc.
   Every Sunday, the once a week we are permitted to tour the facility and check on these horses whom we've grown to know and love, we find injured horses that need attention.  Last week we found a large oozing, bloody abscess on a horse that had obviously needed attention.  
     In the last two weeks we found a very badly wounded sorrel with an infected wound from a kick (featured on my blog); he is in a sick pen now being given pain relief and being monitored and cared for. It is a serious wound and the prognosis is questionable.  
                    ©Photography by Craig Downer
Injured sorrel recuperating.
(Above):  Follow-up on badly injured sorrel (on left) with right rear leg wound barely able to walk.
   (Below):  Legacy, the colt who had such a hard time following his castration, is up and around, eating hay.
                   ©Photography by Craig Downer
      We found, to our relief, that the orphaned foal I'd documented the previous week had been taken in by mom (Cream Pie) as shown in my Tribute to Mustang Mothers slideshow.  This week we were told the vet had determined that he and three orphaned babies who had been adopted by generous mares were taken from those mares in order to be hand nursed.   
           How I wish little Sorro could have been among them.  We spotted Sorro in the last pen we were seeing at around 2:15 p.m.  Our guide has been very accomodating, staying longer than the BLM-planned time of only two hours, an impossibly short amount of time in which to see over 2,000 horses.  We are grateful for his generous spirit with his time (although BLM's once-a-week tour, taking our public horses and making them inaccessible in a private facility, is inappropriate on its face) and grateful that he immediately called for the vet, who was on his way as we were leaving.  Meet Sorro.
(Please double-click inside the viewing box to be able to view the whole clip.)
    What I find deeply troubling about this is this baby didn't get into this condition overnight.  Why is it that we public are the ones to find this baby and generate the call for help for him?  I'm told by BLM that he was seen nursing on his momma, a diligent, beautiful mare whose milk had all but dried up.  It doesn't dry up overnight; this baby was having a problem for at least several days.  And it must be noted that generally, mares don't dry up if a foal is nursing them
    As I stated earlier, I'm assured repeatedly that these horses are cared for, so why does it seem that it is the public observers that continually need to bring so many overlooked injuries, illnesses, or orphaned foals to the attention of the BLM? 
   When the vet, Dr. Sanford, arrived shortly after our departure around 2:25 p.m., this baby could no longer stand on his own.  They got him up on his feet and then decided this little one was too dehydrated and far gone and would not make it.  Dr. Sanford euthanized him.  Was an autopsy done?   
    In the last several weeks, I've seen a baby each week with no mother, inexplicably orphaned, i.e., perhaps mom rejected them; maybe they got separated somehow although BLM insists they are put in the pens in mother/foal pairs. These foals were dependent upon the grace of another mare to take them in. The vet has since removed some and sent them out for individualized care, deeming they would be better off with a private source of nutrition than sharing a mare with another foal.  In one case, one mare had taken in two additional foals as her own, nursing a total of three.  
     I am saddened for these mothers who have opened their bodies and hearts to these foster babies only to have them removed -- yet another loss.  Nevertheless, the vet is wise to consider the mare's health as well as all the foals, and it is unlikely one mare can sustain two, let alone three, foals.
      All of this to say:  It is good for the horses that we are continuing to go see the horses and call attention to those whose need for help has been overlooked. 
      That's all for now.  It's been tremendous having new public observers coming every weekend to see these horses, with the tours filled up to the limit of 10 people.  
For the horses and their humble burro friends,
Elyse Gardner
Humane Observer

Sunday, May 9, 2010


                   ©2009 Photography by Elyse Gardner

     I bring you Mother's Day greetings from Nevada.  And there are many mothers:  As of this date, 280 foals have been born at the holding facility in Fallon, Nevada. 
     I've been away from my computer and missed updating while out with a small group of people touring the Twin Peaks Wild Horse Herd Management Area north of Susanville, California, where the Bureau of Land Management is planning to remove 2,300 horses from this 798,000-acre HMA ("Herd Management Area") beginning in the first week of August 2010.  BLM states this huge area can only sustain 448-758 horses and 72 to 116 wild burros.  This amounts to 1200 acres each per wild horse and burro.  
                           ©2010 Photography by Elyse Gardner
1200 acres per horse.  Zowie.   
Twin Peaks Herd Management Area, Northern California
     I went to observe the range conditions and horse population for myself.  It looks spectacular,  lush, and I documented with video and still camera and will be reporting on that in detail later.  We hiked and drove a 30-mile perimeter, especially covering the northern and eastern sides of the Skedaddle Home Range and the eastern side of the Dry Valley Rim home range, and saw only 74 horses.  I did get some beautiful footage I'm eager to upload. More on this later.
Gelding is continuing at the Broken Arrow holding facility in Fallon, Nevada.  I've been there each week.  As of this date, 350 young male horses age four and under have been castrated.  There is one reported death from anaesthesia complications.
Another young recovering gelding yearling was suffering a disabling hip or hind leg injury and could place no weight at all on his right hind leg, which was swollen throughout.
                          ©2010 Photography by Elyse Gardner
                      Young recovering gelding with a bad hind leg/hip injury.  What a price these living conditions exact on these horses.  He was in no shape to meet the little challenge of this older horse.  Other more sympathetic friends soon showed up. 
Most of the rest of the horses seemed to be enjoying the weather on Saturday.  Most have lost their winter shag and are sleek and gleaming.  More photos later.
     (Adding to the post)  In rereading this blog, I must add:
    Good weather or not, after seeing wild horses on their home ranges, the demeanor of the horses in the feedlots is distinctly different.  Someone commented that living in these pens is easier for the little ones who have never known freedom; that the adult and yearling  horses seemed so depressed, lost. The stallions were very touchy at the feeders with a lot of pretty nasty kicking and squealing, the worst I've yet seen and heard, actually.  They need to be free.
   Here's Legacy as of Sunday.
                                ©2010 Photograph by Elyse Gardner
                           ©2010 Photograph by Elyse Gardner
Legacy, recovering from gelding and chest abscess.
       Legacy is doing relatively well.  He is recovering from a chest abscess while he is recovering from his gelding ordeal.   This little boy must dream passionately about his first six months of life in the wild.  
I know animals have happy dreams.  My beloved late Sienna, rescued standard poodle, was sleeping on my bed in the early morning as I was doing my hair in the bathroom.  
       I heard an unfamiliar but steady, dull thumping.  I looked in the bedroom, and Sienna was fast asleep wagging her tail (she had her full, gorgeous, undocked tail), which was thumping soundly on the bed, clearly having a very happy dream.
I hope Legacy dreams well, because he will likely never see freedom again.
But for now I want to focus on wishing all, especially the precious captive mares, a Happy Mother's Day.  
     I have prepared a treat for you, I hope.  I'll be updating more soon.
     I hope you enjoy the slide show.  Double-click inside the viewing area to see the full picture. 

I'll be traveling to California and am working on several video projects and hope you'll stay with me as we chronicle and witness on behalf of the wild horses, captive and free.  I love keeping you updated and will do my utmost to do so.  
I remain, 
For the wild horses and their humble burro friends,
                                      ©2010 Photography by Elyse Gardner
Captured burros at Palomino Valley holding facility in Nevada

Wednesday, May 5, 2010


©Photography by Elyse Gardner

Panting, this recently gelded youngster laid there hoping the approaching
            humans wouldn't hurt him.  He hurt too much to get up.  No pain management . . .
                He was pressured into the squeeze chute, injected with Sucostrin, a fast-acting paralytic drug, then allowed to leave the squeeze chute.  Since he's had experience with the squeeze chute before, I think it's fair to say he was thinking he was finished for the moment and probably felt relieved to be escaping the scary confinement of the chute. 
           We were walking toward the pen that holds the newly castrated yearlings.  This colt, whom I've named Legacy in honor of his lost opportunity to pass on his mustang line, seemed unwilling or unable to stand despite his obvious discomfort at how close we two humans were.  Closer investigation revealed his very swollen scrotum. He was having a particularly difficult time four days after his castration.  How did he get here?

            There are three drugs BLM is using for castration:  Sucostrin, Ketamine, and Rompun.
                      Within 30 feet, he lost control of his legs and crumpled to the ground.  Paralyzed, he could not move his head or tail or anything but his eyes, but he could still feel, see, and hear everything.  Humans descended upon him, flipped him over onto his back and tied his paralyzed legs together while he was unable to move or even scream for help or fear.   His heart pounded in his chest; he had trouble breathing.  Here it is not unreasonable for me to state: he thought he was going to die.  Maybe he wishes he had.

               He is injected with the remaining two drugs, Ketamine and Rompun.  In combination they are known to sedate and block pain.  We were told that the horse is awake, at least until his legs are tied and the two remaining drugs are administered.  He is drugged, but potentially conscious.  No one seems quite certain if he is truly unconscious.  His testicles are cut away, we are told, in 8 to 10 minutes, whereupon he stands up on his own power.

                Within eight minutes, it was over.  Right after he crumpled to the ground, the people came on him and, oh, the utter horror of it as he momentarily blacked out — what were they doing?  He was in a strange fog, and he hurt.  
              Then they were untying him.   He smelled blood!  Terrifying.  It was the worst day ever in his life.  Well, right up there with the awful day the glass monster chased him and his family out of their home.   
               He scrambled to his feet, but oh, it hurt. He was able to stand somehow within 11 minutes — he had no sense of time — and get away from the people.  He felt awful and weak and shaky, but he was under his own power again.  Okay, then.
              But as time went on, the pain got bad.  It's been four days and it's so bad, he can't remember a time when it didn't hurt.  
©4/24/10 Photo by Craig Downer   
Swollen scrotal area four days post castration
             BLM's policy provides no follow-up pain management even when the horses are particularly challenged, as in Legacy's case. Although Dr. Sanford stated to the HSUS vet, Dr. Eric Davis, that a case such as Legacy's should be brought back in for treatment, it wasn't done.  I pointed Legacy out to BLM staff, and nothing was done.  I was told he was "just a little stiff" when the colt didn't even want to walk.  
                There are those in BLM who have stated they feel I have mischaracterized the gelding scenario.  My interest is in what Legacy thinks.  As humane observer, my goal remains to give him a voice, to observe, to document his experience, to tell the people,   I believe I have done so.

              Here are a couple of stills of Legacy a week after these videos were taken.  My videos are not uploaded yet (I'm having some technological difficulties this week; please bear with me).  He was with Mouse.  He walked maybe 10 feet when I saw him, and his movement was greatly improved from last week.
              He and Mouse and others are still moving gingerly.
I observed the topline and unnaturally square, slightly extended stance these newly castrated horses generally assume, indicating a residual soreness.  This is to be expected, of course.  He was improved from last week.  These boys aren't jumping around and playful, but they are together and moving.
©5/2/10 Photography by Elyse Gardner   LEGACY ONE WEEK LATER
©5/2/10 Photography by Elyse Gardner

               Legacy's successful healing, should he go on to be a nice, healthy boy, in no way justifies allowing an animal to go untreated when displaying clear signs of pain.   And to people who say it's not common to give horses pain medication for post- castration pain, I query: "How humane is that?  Does doing a wrong thing for many years make it right?
               BLM representatives have told me that Legacy was merely stiff,  merely uncomfortable, that he wasn't in pain.  I let the video speak for itself.  You decide.
               Here is an article by Vivian Grant at International Fund for Horses.  She talks about an article from    Here is link:
Complications associated with equine castrations occur commonly and should be indentified and treated properly in the field, relayed Liberty M. Getman, DVM, Dipl. ACVS, from the University of Pennsylvania's New Bolton Center. She presented "Review of castration complications: Strategies for treatment in the field" at the American Association of Equine Practitioners Convention, held Dec. 5-9 in Las Vegas, Nev.

Even though castration (removal of the testicles) is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in equine practice, it does not mean it is simple or without risk.
"Approximately one-third of all castrations develop some form of post-surgical complication, and these complications constitute the number one reason of malpractice claims against North American veterinarians," said Getman.
Postoperative castration complications that veterinarians see most often include:
  • Swelling;
  • Infection;
  • Hemorrhage;
  • Eventration (evisceration, protrusion of intestine through the inguinal ring into the scrotum);
  • Peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities);
  • Damage to the penis; and
  • Hydrocele formation (a collection of fluid in a cavity; in this case fluid within the vaginal cavity, where the testicle resided).
"Prompt recognition of post-castration complications and expedited application of appropriate treatment is essential in all cases," concluded Getman. "Most cases can be successfully managed in the field, but some cases will require referral to an equine hospital for advanced treatment."
Details regarding field management strategies for the above-described complications were described in Getman's full-length abstract, which is available in the conference proceedings.